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The following is a (possibly incomplete) list of medieval queens regnant (i.e. queens who ruled by their own right as sovereign monarchs). Criteria for inclusion:

  • A female person crowned as "Queen", "King" or some analogous monarchical title, or self-designated and recognized as such by another sovereign, a pope or a treaty
  • Reigned as a monarch over a kingdom or empire within the medieval European sphere of influence
  • Reign began or ended during the Middle Ages in history
  • Verifiable as an historical ruler (i.e. not a legendary ruler)

Queens regnant, by kingdomEdit

BosniaEdit

  • Helen of Bosnia (Jelena Gruba) (reigned 1395-98), the only historical female monarch of Bosnia, was elected as queen regnant by the Bosnian nobility after the death of her husband, King Stephen Dabiša, in 1395.

DenmarkEdit

  • Margaret I of Denmark (Margrete Valdemarsdatter) (reigned 1387-1412), the daughter of King Valdemar IV of Denmark, ruled over Norway and Denmark as queen regnant from 1387, and in 1389 she sent an army to Sweden to depose King Albert. Margaret reigned over Denmark and Norway from 1387 and Sweden from 1389, installing Eric of Pomerania as King of Norway in 1389 and King of Denmark and Sweden in 1396 but retaining her position as reigning queen in all three countries. Seeking throughout her reign to unite the three Nordic countries, she successfully established the Kalmar Union in 1397 and maintained effective sovereignty until her death in 1412. She was succeeded in all three countries by Eric of Pomerania.

EnglandEdit

HungaryEdit

  • Mary (reigned 1382–1385 and 1386–1395) succeeded her father in 1382, under her mother's regency. Mary was crowned as King of Hungary to emphasize her sovereignty. She was briefly deposed in 1385 and restored a few months later, only to be ambushed and imprisoned, along with her mother, by their political enemies. After her mother's murder at the hands of their captors, Mary was liberated by her husband Sigismund of Luxembourg in 1387 and ruled Hungary jointly with him until her accidental death 1395.

ItalyEdit

NorwayEdit

  • Margaret I of Denmark (Margrete Valdemarsdatter) (reigned 1387-1412), the daughter of King Valdemar IV of Denmark, ruled over Norway and Denmark as queen regnant from 1387, and in 1389 she sent an army to Sweden to depose King Albert. Margaret reigned over Denmark and Norway from 1387 and Sweden from 1389, installing Eric of Pomerania as King of Norway in 1389 and King of Denmark and Sweden in 1396 but retaining her position as reigning queen in all three countries. Seeking throughout her reign to unite the three Nordic countries, she successfully established the Kalmar Union in 1397 and maintained effective sovereignty until her death in 1412. She was succeeded in all three countries by Eric of Pomerania.

PolandEdit

  • Jadwiga of Poland (sometimes anglicized as Hedwig) (reigned 1384-99) was crowned "King of Poland" to emphasize her sovereignty at her coronation at Krakow in 1384, and ruled jointly with her husband from 1386 until her death in 1399.
  • Anna Jagiellon (reigned 1575-1586) and her fiance Stephen Bathory were elected in 1575 to rule jointly as "King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania".

PortugalEdit

  • Theresa of Portugal (reigned 1112-1128) was Countess of Portugal from 1112, but was recognized by Pope Paschal II as "Queen of Portugal" in 1116. She was forced, however, to recognize Portugal as a dependent fief of the Kingdom of León in 1121. Her son and heir, Afonso I of Portugal, established himself as sole ruler of Portugal and in 1139 was proclaimed the first King of Portugal. Due to her recognition as Queen by the Pope, however, many historians recognize Theresa as Portugal's first monarch, despite the fact Portugal's status as a sovereign kingdom was not established until 23 years later.

SpainEdit

SwedenEdit

  • Margaret I of Denmark (Margrete Valdemarsdatter) (reigned 1389-1412), the daughter of King Valdemar IV of Denmark, ruled over Norway and Denmark as queen regnant from 1387, and in 1389 she sent an army to Sweden to depose King Albert. Margaret reigned over Denmark and Norway from 1387 and Sweden from 1389, installing Eric of Pomerania as King of Norway in 1389 and King of Denmark and Sweden in 1396 but retaining her position as reigning queen in all three countries. Seeking throughout her reign to unite the three Nordic countries, she successfully established the Kalmar Union in 1397 and maintained effective sovereignty until her death in 1412. She was succeeded in all three countries by Eric of Pomerania.

Empresses of Byzantine EmpireEdit

Main article: Empress
  • Irene of Athens (reigned 797–802) was consort to the emperor Leo IV from 775-780, then empress dowager during her son Constantine VI's reign after her husband's death in 780. In 797, Irene acceded to the throne as empress regnant and ruled for five years until she was deposed and exiled in 802.
  • Zoe (reigned 1028-1041 and 1042-1050) ruled with her consorts Romanos III and Michael IV from 1028-1041, and ruled jointly with her third husband Constantine IX and her sister Theodora from 1042-1050.
  • Theodora (reigned 1042–1056) ruled from 1042 jointly with her sister Zoe and her third husband Constantine IX, and from 1055 until her death reigned as sole monarch over the empire.


People of medieval society

Royalty

Emperor · Empress · King · Prince · Princess · Queen

Nobility

Baron · Baroness · Count · Countess · Duke · Dutchess · Earl · Marchioness · Marquis · Peer · Prince-Elector

Chivalry

Crusader · Knight · Landsknecht · Page · Squire

Feudalism

Lady · Lord · Peasant · Serf · Vassal · Villein · Warlord

Clergy

Abbot · Archbishop · Bishop · Cardinal · Friar · Monk · Nun · Pope · Priest · Prior

Other

Burgher · Castellan · Herald · Housecarl · Marshal · Minnesinger · Reeve · Seneschal · Sheriff · Thegn · Witan

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